The individual citizens, the various
social institutions comprising the citizens, and their collective embodiment
the state, shall, separately and together, enforce the duties and rights set
out in the following Clauses;
Provided that it shall be lawful for any social
institution to place reasonable restrictions on the activities of its
individual members so as not to impede the exercise of the duties and rights by
all the members; and
Provided further that it shall be lawful for
the state to place reasonable restrictions on the activities of the individual
citizens or of the social institutions, as the case may be, so as not to impede
the exercise of the duties and rights by all the citizens and by all the social
Note: All the succeeding Clauses of the Social Compact shall be
subject to this Clause.
The family is the natural and
fundamental social institution and is entitled to protection by the society and
the state. Men and women of marriageable age have a right to marry and to found
a family. No marriage shall be entered into without the free and full consent
of the intending spouses.
Every human being, including the
foetus in the womb, has the inherent right to life. No one shall wantonly or
arbitrarily extinguish any life.
Every expectant mother and every
nursing mother, regardless of their social or economic status, have the right
to nourishment and healthcare adequate for the healthy and full growth of the
foetus and the newborn child; every such mother has also the right to leave
from work with full wages.
Every child shall have, without any
discrimination as to race, colour, gender, language, religion, national or
social origin, property or birth, the right to such measures of nourishment and
child care as are required; every child has the right to protection from all
forms of neglect, harm and exploitation.
Every child has the right to free
education until he completes the age of eighteen years. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that
shall be given to their children.
Every person has the right to safe
drinking water, sanitation, and an environment that is conducive to one’s heath
For living in dignity as befits a
civilised society, every citizen has the right to irreducible minimum standards
of food, clothing, shelter, health and medical care and other social services
and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability,
widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his
Provided that he accepts the reciprocal obligation
to pay such taxes, perform such work or render such service as may be
stipulated keeping in view his capabilities.
Every citizen has the right to rural
wage employment for a minimum of eighty days in a year.
The expenditure to be incurred by the
state in pursuance of Clauses 4 to 9 shall be shared by all the persons
resident in the state in proportion to their income.
The Constitution and its ideals and
institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem shall be respected at
The sovereignty, unity and integrity
of India shall be upheld and protected at all times.
Every citizen shall defend the country
and render national service when called upon to do so.
The harmony and the spirit of common
brotherhood amongst all the people of India, transcending ethnic, religious,
linguistic and regional or sectional diversities, shall be promoted at all
times; practices derogatory to the dignity of women shall be renounced.
Every citizen shall value and preserve
the rich heritage and culture of India.
Subject to Clauses 1 to 10, any
section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof
practising a distinct faith or having a distinct language, script or culture of
its own shall have the right to conserve the same, including the setting up and
administration of educational institutions.
There shall be compassion for all
living beings; the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and
wild life, shall be protected and improved.
Public property shall be safeguarded
and violence abjured at all times.
Scientific temper, humanism and the
spirit of inquiry and reform shall be developed in every citizen.
Every citizen shall at all times be
committed to discipline in whatever he does, be unremitting in his work ethic
and strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective
activities so that the nation constantly rises to higher and higher levels of
endeavour and achievement.
The state shall strive to enable every
citizen to develop his full potential and give of his best.
Every citizen has the right to work,
to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to
protection against unemployment.
The state shall ensure that there is
equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
The state shall so conduct its affairs
that it meets the aspirations of, and is accountable to, all the citizens and
not merely to particular segments thereof.
Social, political and economic justice
shall inform all institutions of national life.
The maximum well being of all citizens
shall be secured without compromising the well being of the future generations.
The environment shall be protected so
as to prevent pollution and ecological degradation, for the benefit of the
present and future generations. And, the process of economic and social
development shall be such that natural resources are conserved and the
development is ecologically sustainable.
The state shall not undertake any
responsibility that can be effectively discharged by a social institution or
the citizens on their own.
Every citizen and every social
institution shall have the right to practice any profession, or to carry on any
occupation, trade, business, manufacture or service. Trade, commerce, and
intercourse shall be free throughout the country.
The state and every social institution
(other than the family) shall conduct their affairs with transparency, with
full participation by the citizens or the members as the case may be, and shall
be fully accountable to them.
The state shall help evolve suitable
forms of social institutions, create an enabling environment for the
institutions to perform, and ensure that there is level playing field for
institutions engaged in like activities.
The enabling environment to be created
shall include the guarantee of autonomy in their sphere of working, the legal,
social and physical infrastructure as well as a stable and predictable policy
framework including the fiscal policy framework.
The affairs of the social institutions
shall be so conducted that they are accountable to, and meet the aspirations
of, all the citizens (not merely their members or their immediate clientele),
and all the future generations (not just the present generation).
The social institutions (other than
the family) or associations of social institutions shall achieve the objective
set out in Clause 33 primarily through self-regulation. The state shall step in
to regulate when such self-regulation is inadequate.
The regulatory framework by the state
shall promote healthy competition and shall include stricter overseeing in the
case of monopolies and quasi-monopolies; the state shall also undertake policy
measures to prevent their growth.
The integrity of the legal system
shall be ensured such that contracts are honoured and debts repaid.
The integrity of the price system
shall be ensured such that no producer or trader is compelled to sell any good
or service below its cost price.
The integrity of the financial system
shall be ensured such that no institution is compelled to lend or invest money
against its best judgement.
The integrity of the fiscal system
shall be ensured such that public revenues raised are adequate to meet public
Everyone, including every social
institution, shall voluntarily pay the taxes and other charges levied by the
state. The tax laws shall be simple entailing low administrative and compliance
costs for the state as well as the taxpayers, the tax base as wide as possible,
and the tax rates as low as possible.
The effective tax rate for any tax for
general purposes on any business engaged in services, trading, manufacture,
imports or exports shall not exceed ten per cent of the aggregate of all
incomes generated by it.
The effective tax rate for any tax for
general purposes on goods and services at any point shall not exceed ten per
cent of the value added at that point.
The effective tax rate on personal
income below the income level of twenty times the average per capita income
shall be uniform and shall not exceed twenty per cent,
Provided that the contribution made under
Clause 10 above shall be set off against the personal income tax payable,
Provided further that the entire revenue from
the personal income tax shall be utilised only for the purpose of redressing
the inequalities, and
further that the sum may be distributed in the form of cash, food stamps or tax
The state shall make incidence
analyses of all its tax and public expenditure programmes. The state shall
follow the principle of “last man first” in arranging the priorities of public
The state shall not undertake any
activity or take any policy decision that has the effect of widening the
inequalities in income.
The criterion to judge whether
inequalities are widened at the national level shall be that the share of
national income accruing to the top ten per cent of the households shall not be
more than ten times the share of the bottom ten percent of the households.
The state shall endeavour to minimise
inequalities among different groups of people and as between different regions
in the country.
No citizen or institution shall be
discriminated against on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language,
gender, place of birth or any of them; no citizen shall be subject to any disability,
liability, restriction or condition with regard to access to any public place
on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language, gender, place of birth or
any of them;
Provided that nothing in this Clause
shall prevent the state or any institution from making any special provision
for children, women, the handicapped, the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled
Tribes, or any socially or educationally backward class of citizens.
All citizens shall have equality of
opportunity in all the civil, political, social and economic matters;
Provided that nothing in this Clause shall
prevent the state or any institution from prescribing for any specified purpose
a requirement as to residence within a specified area;
Provided further that nothing in this Clause
shall prevent the state or any institution from prescribing for any specified
purpose a requirement as to the religion, race, caste, language or gender of
the person; and
Provided further that nothing in this
Clause shall prevent the state or any institution from making any special
provision for children, women, the handicapped, the Scheduled Castes, the
Scheduled Tribes, or any socially or educationally backward class of
Every citizen has the right and the
opportunity to take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through
freely chosen representatives; every citizen has the right to vote and the
right to get elected in the periodic elections.
Every citizen shall have equal access
to public service.
Everyone has the right to liberty and
security of person.
Everyone has the right to liberty of
movement and the freedom to choose his residence.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary
or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, or
to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.
Everyone has the right to freedom of
thought, conscience and religion; and, everyone has the right to hold opinions
Everyone has the right to freedom of
expression and freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all
Every person and every institution
shall have equality before the law and equal protection of the laws;
Provided that it shall be permissible to
impose a higher penalty for the same offence committed by persons in responsible
Deprivation or acquisition of property
shall be by authority of law and only for a public purpose.
There shall be no arbitrary
deprivation or acquisition of property,
Provided that no deprivation or
acquisition of agricultural, forest and non-urban homestead land belonging to
or customarily used by the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes shall take
place except by authority of law which provides for suitable rehabilitation
scheme before taking possession of such land.
Everyone has the right to speedy
justice at affordable cost.
The title of Part III Fundamental Rights may be changed to Social Compact and various
Clauses mentioned above incorporated therein, with such additions and alterations
as considered appropriate. Parts IV and IV-A may be omitted.